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The facts




Rhee, J.J., Zwar, N.A. and Kemp, L.A., 2011. How is advance care planning conceptualised in Australia? Findings from key informant interviews. Australian Health Review, 35(2), pp.197-203.

Squires, B. and Barr, F., 2005. The development of advance care directives in New South Wales. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 24(s1).

Baum, E.E., 2009. Advance care planning: Beyond the living will. Cleveland Clinic journal of medicine, 76(5), p.277.

Cartwright, C.M., 2005. Advance care planning: rights and responsibilities. Australian Health Consumer, 2(2005-2006),p.5.

Stewart, C., 2005. The Australian experience of advance directives and possible future directions. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 24(s1), pp.S25-S29.

Taylor, D.M. and Cameron, P.A., 2002. Advance care planning in Australia: overdue for improvement. Internal Medicine Journal, 32(910), pp.475-480.

Legal framework

Willmott, L., White, B. and Downie, J., 2013. Withholding and withdrawal of ‘futile’life-sustaining treatment: Unilateral medical decision-making in Australia and New Zealand

 Willmott, L., White, B. and Howard, M., 2006. Refusing advance refusals: advance directives and life-sustaining medical treatment.

Jordens, C., Little, M., Kerridge, I. and McPhee, J., 2005. From advance directives to advance care planning: current legal status, ethical rationales and a new research agenda. Internal medicine journal, 35(9), pp.563-566.

Singer, P.A., Robertson, G. and Roy, D.J., 1996. Bioethics for clinicians: 6. Advance care planning. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, 155(12), p.1689.


Detering, K.M., Hancock, A.D., Reade, M.C. and Silvester, W., 2010. The impact of advance care planning on end of life care in elderly patients: randomised controlled trial. Bmj, 340, p.c1345.

Barriers and Enablers

Scott, I.A., Mitchell, G.K., Reymond, E.J. and Daly, M.P., 2013. Difficult but necessary conversations–the case for advance care planning. Med J Aust, 199(10), pp.662-6.

Levi, B.H., Dellasega, C., Whitehead, M. and Green, M.J., 2010. What influences individuals to engage in advance care planning?. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine®, 27(5), pp.306-312.

Bloomer, M., Tan, H. and Lee, S., 2010. End of life care: the importance of advance care planning. Australian family physician, 39(10), p.734.


McMahan, R.D., Knight, S.J., Fried, T.R. and Sudore, R.L., 2013. Advance care planning beyond advance directives: perspectives from patients and surrogates. Journal of pain and symptom management, 46(3), pp.355-365.

Rhee, J.J., Zwar, N.A. and Kemp, L.A., 2012. Uptake and implementation of Advance Care Planning in Australia: findings of key informant interviews. Australian Health Review, 36(1), pp.98-104.

Briggs, L., 2004. Shifting the focus of advance care planning: using an in-depth interview to build and strengthen relationships. Journal of palliative medicine, 7(2), pp.341-349.


Aged care

Silvester, W., Parslow, R.A., Lewis, V.J., Fullam, R.S., Sjanta, R., Jackson, L., White, V. and Hudson, R., 2013. Development and evaluation of an aged care specific Advance Care Plan. BMJ supportive & palliative care, 3(2), pp.188-195.

Silvester, W., Fullam, R.S., Parslow, R.A., Lewis, V.J., Sjanta, R., Jackson, L., White, V. and Gilchrist, J., 2012. Quality of advance care planning policy and practice in residential aged care facilities in Australia. BMJ supportive & palliative care, pp.bmjspcare-2012.

Jeong, S.Y.S., Higgins, I. and McMillan, M., 2010. The essentials of Advance Care Planning for endoflife care for older people. Journal of clinical nursing, 19(34), pp.389-397.

Shanley, C., Whitmore, E., Khoo, A., Cartwright, C., Walker, A. and Cumming, R.G., 2009. Understanding how advance care planning is approached in the residential aged care setting: a continuum model of practice as an explanatory device. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 28(4), pp.211-215.

Caplan, G.A., Meller, A., Squires, B., Chan, S. and Willett, W., 2006. Advance care planning and hospital in the nursing home. Age and ageing, 35(6), pp.581-585.

Nair, B., Kerridgey, I., Dobson, A., McPhee, J. and Saul, P., 2000. Advance care planning in residential care. Australian and New Zealand journal of medicine, 30(3), pp.339-343.

Acute & Subacute Care

Hayes, B., 2013. Clinical model for ethical cardiopulmonary resuscitation decisionmaking. Internal medicine journal, 43(1), pp.77-83.

Taylor, D.M., Ugoni, A.M., Cameron, P.A. and McNeil, J.J., 2003. Advance directives and emergency department patients: ownership rates and perceptions of use. Internal medicine journal, 33(12), pp.586-592.

Zib, M. and Saul, P., 2007. A pilot audit of the process of end-of-life decision-making in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Resusc, 9(2), pp.213-218.

Seal, M., 2007. Patient advocacy and advance care planning in the acute hospital setting. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 24(4), p.29.


Taylor, D.M. and Cameron, P.A., 2002. Advance care planning in Australia: overdue for improvement. Internal Medicine Journal, 32(910), pp.475-480.

Palliative Care

Detering, K., Silvester, W., Corke, C., Milnes, S., Fullam, R., Lewis, V. and Renton, J., 2014. Teaching general practitioners and doctors-in-training to discuss advance care planning: evaluation of a brief multimodality education programme. BMJ supportive & palliative care, 4(3), pp.313-321.

Cartwright, C.M., 2005. Advance care planning: rights and responsibilities. Australian Health Consumer, 2(2005-2006), p.5.


Substitute Decision-Maker

Silveira, M.J., Kim, S.Y. and Langa, K.M., 2010. Advance directives and outcomes of surrogate decision making before death. New England Journal of Medicine, 362(13), pp.1211-1218.

 Apatira, L., Boyd, E.A., Malvar, G., Evans, L.R., Luce, J.M., Lo, B. and White, D.B., 2008. Hope, truth, and preparing for death: perspectives of surrogate decision makers. Annals of internal medicine, 149(12), pp.861-868.

Culturally & Linguistically Diverse

Johnstone, M.J. and Kanitsaki, O., 2009. Ethics and advance care planning in a culturally diverse society. Journal of transcultural nursing, 20(4), pp.405-416.


Disease Specific

Michael, N., O’Callaghan, C., Clayton, J., Pollard, A., Stepanov, N., Spruyt, O., Michael, M. and Ball, D., 2013. Understanding how cancer patients actualise, relinquish, and reject advance care planning: implications for practice. Supportive Care in Cancer, 21(8), pp.2195-2205.

Schellinger, S., Sidebottom, A. and Briggs, L., 2011. Disease specific advance care planning for heart failure patients: implementation in a large health system. Journal of palliative medicine, 14(11), pp.1224-1230.

 Vollmann, J., 2001. Advance directives in patients with Alzheimer's disease; Ethical and clinical considerations. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy, 4(2), pp.161-167.